Here is a selection of links to provide context for our project.
- Maria Cristina De Angelis, Rita Paola Guerzoni, and Adriana Moroni, “Il bacino del lago Trasimeno in epoca preistorica e protostorica. Collezioni storiche e indagini recenti,” Gentes I.1 (Dic. 2014), 16-19. A short illustrated article concerning the pre/protohistory of Lake Trasimeno, particularly concerning artifacts and architecture from the southern edge of the lake, and the paleoenvironment of the region.
- Key to Umbria: History. A series of pages outlining the history of Umbria, with links to treatments of key sites, cities, and artists.
- Archeo Umbria: Archaeology and History in Umbria: an ongoing blog with posts by Umbra Institute students who take the ‘Archaeological Discoveries’ course of Prof. Bevagna, with links to key sites and museums in Perugia.
- L’Ipogeo di Tetina (The Hypogaeum of Tetina), a digital reconstruction of a late Hellenistic-period Etruscan tomb and its contents, from nearby Sigliano-Val di Fosso, by Sabrina Batino and Marco Callieri, as a project for the Visual Computing Lab. The same team has now developed a similar virtual reconstruction for the Gioiella necropolis and its finds, recently presented at a press conference in Castiglione del Lago.
- The Battle of Trasimene, 217 B.C.: side-by-side (translated) accounts by Polybius (3.81-89) and Livy (22.3-9) of Hannibal’s ambush of Gaius Flaminius on the north side of the lake, by John D. Clare. Underwater geophysical surveys conducted in 2004/5 and 2013 sought to identify concentrations of Roman armor from soldiers who drowned during battle, as suggested by metallic anomalies; preliminary (inconclusive) results from that project were published in the proceedings from the 2013 ‘Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida’ (GNGTS) conference in Trieste: L. Borgia, et al. “First results of waterborne geophysical surveys around the Malpasso site (Tuoro sul Trasimeno, Italy) for Geological and archaeological characterization,” GNGTS 2013, Session 3.3, 186-189.
- Il Sentiero della Bonifica: a 62-km. bicycle and trekking path that traces the Canale Maestro between Chiusi and Arezzo, a six-centuries long land reclamation project that transformed the hydrology, agriculture, and settlement of the Chiana river valley by draining the valley towards the Arno River in the north, rather than its original direction south to the Tiber River. Tectonic changes, climate shifts, and siltation exacerbated by deforestation had made the valley, located just west of our Gioiella-Vaiano villa site, marshy, malarial, and unsuitable for occupation or agriculture. The final drainage system was designed under the energetic supervision of Vittorio Fossombroni.
- The Battle of San Fatucchio, waged between Lago Trasimeno and Lago di Chiusi in late June, 1944, pitted Canadian forces and the 38th (Irish) brigade as part of the British Army’s XIII Corps (Eighth Army) against German soldiers trying to hold the Trasimene Line. One focus of the battle was the Cimitero di San Fatucchio and the Parrocchia di San Felice Papa across the road, both located on a prominent hill. Ordinance from the battle is still present in the area (though not near our villa site, which was well off the path of the troops); in 2014, a 12-year-old boy with a metal detector uncovered a phosphorus grenade but escaped injury. Locals also tell the story of a farmer who hit a phosphorus bomb with his plough, and two cluster bomblets were found in the area in February 2016.